This has been asked/suggested a couple times. 1 most golf courses dont allow it. 2 the chemicals golf courses use to keep their lawns so pretty drain right into those ponds, so I wouldnt keep any fish that you catch there.
Most courses have fish in them of one kind or another. But I agree, to eat one of them would be crazy IMO. I have a partner here at work that carrys a small travel rod in his bag with a black panter martin tied to hit. When the holes get backed up he pulls it out nad makes two or three casts before it's time to hit.
Ive seen him pull Largemouth, rainbow, Bluegill and Crappie. At least in the Springs there are more ponds with fish then without.